TMap Glossary

TMap Glossary

This Glossary is your trusted guide to exploring testing-related terms and definitions, from the world's leading Test Methodology.



3D printing

See Additive manufacturing.


The reaction of users on two variants (A and B) of a system are compared to determine which variant best fits the expectations of the users. Variant A might be the existing version and B a new version. Or A and B can be two different new versions that are compared.

Ability to learn

The ability to learn is the ability to comprehend, to understand and to profit from experience. This is a new sub quality characteristic.

Acceptance test

A test executed by the user(s) and manager(s) in an environment simulating the operational environment to the greatest possible extent, demonstrating that the developed system meets the functional and quality requirements.


The ability to split up an element into sub-elements that, in a different combination, result in a new, valuable element for the specific situation.

Additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3D printing, is the process in which products are "printed" layer by layer through a nozzle with a specific filament of printing material.


Agile is a mindset for software development, based on the Agile Manifesto, in which the focus lies primarily on creating value for the business.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence, put simply, is the ability of machines to carry out tasks and activities we would consider "intelligent". Artificial intelligence, broadly defined, is the ability for an intelligent agent to observe its surroundings and carry out specific tasks to maximize its ability to achieve some goal.

Artificial general intelligence

Artificial general intelligence (or AGI) is an intelligence that can execute all the tasks that a human could execute.

Artificial narrow intelligence

This AI is focused on one task. All AI we use nowadays, is categorized as artificial narrow intelligence (or ANI).

Basic technique

The method of deriving test situations from the test basis to achieve the required coverage type.


See Behavior driven development.


Business driven test management is aimed at enabling the client to manage the test process on rational and economic grounds. Important BDTM aspects are: result, risk, time and cost.

Behavior driven development

Behavior driven development (BDD) is a software development methodology in which an application is specified and designed by describing how its behavior should appear to an outside observer.


Blockchain is a shared digital ledger of who owns what at which moment in time. It is distributed, meaning it exists in multiple locations in the exact same form at the same time. So, there is no single point of failure. Transactions are stored in a chain of blocks. Transaction history is kept in an audit trail and is immutable.


A bot (short for robot) is an algorithm acting on behalf of an individual, business or program, that can mimic human conversation.

Boundary value analysis

Test principle based on the fact that a test around a boundary has a greater chance to detect a defect.

Business case

The business case provides the economic justification for the project and answers the questions: why do we do this project, which investments are needed, what does the client wish to achieve with the result?

Business Driven Test Management (BDTM)

Business Driven Test Management is aimed at enabling the client to manage the test process on rational and economic grounds. Important BDTM aspects are: result, risk, time and cost.

Central starting point

See Starting point.

Chain test

See End-to-end test.


Charisma is the compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others. This is a new sub-quality characteristic.

Checklist (coverage type)

All the situations are tested that are summed up in an unstructured list.


See Continuous integration (CI) and Continuous delivery (CD).


A collaborative robot.


Use of cobots (see Cobot) for performing tasks by people together with robots.

Code review

A method of improving the quality of written code by evaluating the work against the specifications and/or guidelines and subjecting it to peer review.


The word cognitive means "knowing and perceiving".

Cognitive IT

Cognitive information technology is not just rule-based but is able to react and adapt its behavior based on perception and knowledge.

Cognitive QA

The use of cognitive IT to assist quality assurance and testing.

Collaboration / working in a team

Collaboration is about how well a robot works alongside with humans. This is a new sub quality characteristic.

Combined test

Test approach by which the system test and the functional acceptance test are combined to a single test level.


Compatibility is the degree to which a product, system or component can exchange information with other products, systems or components, and/or perform its required functions, while sharing the same hardware or software environment.


The certainty that all inputs and changes are processed by the system.

Condition coverage

The possible outcomes of ("true" or "false") for each condition are tested at least once.

Condition/decision coverage

The possible outcomes of each condition and of the decision are tested at least once. This implies both "condition coverage" and "decision coverage".


Confidence is one of the five elements of TMap HD. This is the fifth element where the other elements (People, Integrate, Simplify and Industrialize) lead to in order to gain the trust that the IT system is fit for purpose, often based on the faith that the people involved do the right things.


How easy a link with a different information system or within the information system can be made and modified.

Context coverage

Context coverage is the degree to which a product or system can be used with effectiveness, efficiency, freedom from risk and satisfaction in both specified contexts of use and in contexts beyond those initially explicitly identified.


The certainty that the information system will continue uninterruptedly, which means that it can be resumed within a reasonable time even after serious interruptions.

Continuous delivery (CD)

Continuous delivery is an extension of the principles behind continuous integration. It entails that the code is always in a state in which it is deployable. This practice leans heavily on the automation of the testing and delivery processes, to ensure that these happen without any hiccups. The testing happens in stages, where if the code passes one stage of tests, it automatically passes on to the next stage, and so on and so forth until the code is ready for deployment.

Continuous integration (CI)

By making it a practice to integrate code into the main branch of a shared repository as early and often as possible, continuous integration minimizes the cost of integration in a build process and allows for more frequent and automated testing. By kicking off automated tests as soon as a developer merges a new code, test suites can be run to check whether any new integration errors were introduced.

Continuous monitoring

Based on test tools, test sets continuously monitor the behavior of a system during live operation and use the information to forecast the future behavior of the system and if necessary organize adaptive measures.

Continuous testing

Automated test execution that is run every time software is integrated in a build before a new build is deployed.


The degree to which the system processes the input and changes entered correctly, in accordance with the specifications, to produce consistent data sets.


Coverage deals with aspects of the test object that you would like to assess and the thoroughness with which you do that. It is the ratio between that which can be tested and that which is tested with the test set.

Coverage group

A group of coverage types and test design techniques that aim at testing the same aspect of an IT system or Business process. The four coverage groups are: Process, Condition, Data and Appearance.

Coverage ratio

The percentage of test situations, as defined by the coverage type, that is covered by the test.

Coverage type

The form in which the covering of test situations deducible from the test basis, is expressed.

Cross-functional team

A cross-functional team is a group of people with different sets of knowledge, skills and capabilities, working together toward a common goal.

Data analytics

Data analytics is the isolation, aggregation and analysis of data based on different criteria relating to specific use cases.

Data controllability

The ease with which the correctness and completeness of the information (in the course of time) can be checked.

Data mining

Data mining serves to garner important information out of large quantities of data from an information repository. Data mining can take on multiple variations, such as anomaly detection, where the aim is to get a broad picture of general trends in large amounts of data and then be able to detect when something is out of place, or cluster detection, where the aim is to identify "clusters", or subgroups of data that fall under the same category. Another type of data mining is classification, although this requires a clear preexisting structure, with which a data-mining algorithm can automatically classify incoming data.

Decision coverage

The possible outcomes of the decision are tested at least once.

Decision point

A combination of one or more conditions that define the conditions for the various possibilities in the subsequent system behavior.

Deep learning

Deep learning is a form of machine learning based on learning data representations, based on the information processing in biological nervous systems, using neural networks.

Defect (fault)

The result of an error residing in the code or document.

Degradation factor

The ease with which the core of the information system can continue after a part has failed.


A cross-functional systems engineering culture that aims at unifying systems development (Dev) and systems operations (Ops). Usually other expertise like Business Analysis and Quality Assurance are integrated. It aims at solving inefficiencies within the systems manufacturing process.


The use of data to raise human performance and implement a cyclical dynamic, where processes and capabilities are constantly evolving based on inputs from the customer, fostering ongoing product or service loyalty.

Digital archeology

Disclosing historic data of a retired IT system.

Digital manufacturing

Digital manufacturing is considered "manufacturing's next act". It is part of the new wave of industry 4.0, where CAD design, digital manufacturing, robotics, sensors and data & analytics are combined to redefine industrial production. Digital manufacturing defines the process of designing a product or prototype in CAD, and then creating the physical version via additive manufacturing, laser cutting or CNC.

Digital solution

A solution where elements of IT, electronics, mechanics, but also new technologies such as AI, IoT, additive manufacturing, have a place. Existing IT systems are digital solutions too. And the digital age also converts OT systems to digital solutions.

Digital transformation

Digital transformation refers to when a business or organization shifts from their traditional mode of operation to modern, technology-enabled ways of management and operations.

Digital twin

A digital twin is a digital representation of a physical process, product or service. A digital twin can take on the form of a data sheet, an interactive CAD model of a product, or a dashboard with a lot of data readings. Using these models, tests can be conducted to gather information on behavior.


A simulation program that replaces a program that should take care of the control and/or the calling of the test object.

Dynamic testing

Testing by execution of the test object and/or the running of software.


Effectiveness is the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve specified goals.


The degree to which the information system meets the demands of the organization and the profile of the end users for whom it is intended, as well as the degree to which the information system contributes to the achievement of business objectives.


Efficiency is about the resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve goals.


The relationship between the performance level of the system (expressed in the transaction volume and overall speed) and the amount of resources (CPU cycles, I/O time, memory and network capacity, etc.) that are used.


TMap HD describes the five elements of quality-driven testing: People, Integrate, Simplify, Industrialize and Confidence.


The tangible or visible form of an intelligent machine (e.g. a robot or chatbot).


Embodiment refers to the physical looks of a robot, and mainly is about whether it looks right for its purpose. This is a new sub quality characteristic.


Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. This is a new sub quality characteristic.

End-to-end test

A test type where the end-to-end functionality of one or more systems is tested with end-to-end test cases.


Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

Equivalence class

In the application of equivalence classes, the entire value range of a parameter is partitioned into classes, in which the system behavior is similar (equivalent).


Human mistake; this action takes place prior to any faults and/or failures.


Moral principles that govern behavior or the conducting of an activity.


Ethics is about acting according to various principles. Important principles are laws, rules and regulations, but for ethics the unwritten moral principles are the most important. This is a new sub quality characteristic.


Evaluation is assessing the intermediary products in the system development process.

Evolutionary algorithms

One of the approaches to machine learning is an evolutionary algorithm (EA). An EA uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation, recombination, and selection. Candidate solutions to the optimization problem play the role of individuals in a population, and the fitness function determines the quality of the solutions.


Formal testing of knowledge and skills by question and answer.

Exploration testing

Is the simultaneous learning, designing and executing of tests, in other words every form of testing in which the tester designs his tests during test execution and the information obtained is reused to design new and improved test cases.

Fail-over possibilities

The ease with which (part of) the information system can continue elsewhere.


The result or manifestation of one or more faults. When the system is performing differently from the required behavior, from a viewpoint outside the system. Users will see the failure.

Fault (defect)

The result of an error residing in the code or document. Fault is the view from inside the system. Fault is the state where mistake or error exists. Developers will see the fault.


The degree to which the user may introduce extensions or modifications to the information system without changing the program itself. Or: the degree to which the system can be modified by the controlling organization without being dependent on the IT department for maintenance.

FPA functions

Subdivision of user functions in FPA functions: logical set of data, links, input functions, output functions, reading functions. These FPA functions are the elementary building blocks to determine the functionality of a system.

Freedom of risk

Freedom of risk is the degree to which a product or system mitigates the potential risk to economic status, human life, health, or the environment.

Function point

Unit to measure the functionality and/or the size of application software.

Function point analysis (FPA)

A method aiming to measure the size of the functionality of an automated system. The measurement is independent of the technology. This measurement may be used as a base for the measurement of productivity, the estimation of the needed resources, and project control.

Functional acceptance test

A test carried out by the future user(s) in an optimally simulated production environment with the aim of demonstrating that the developed system meets the functional requirements.


 Functional suitability is the degree to which a product or system provides functions that meet stated and implied needs when used under specified conditions.


The certainty that data processing is correct and complete, in accordance with the description in the functional specifications.

Generic test agreements

The overall approach for the setup and organization of test processes that applies to more than one project or release. General agreements on e.g. the test process, standard strategy, estimating method, procedures, organization, communication, documentation, etc.


The roadmap of testing in the digital age consists of five hops that each describe a specific part of the roadmap.

Human friendliness

Human friendliness refers to the level to which intelligent machines don't cause harm to humans or humanity. This is a new sub quality characteristic.


Humor is the quality of being amusing or comic, especially as expressed in literature or speech. This is a new sub quality characteristic.


Industrial Internet of Things


Improvisation is the power of the intelligent system to make right decisions in new situations. It is a new sub quality characteristic.

Industrial Internet of Things

The use of IoT technologies in manufacturing.


Industrialize is one of the five elements of TMap HD. It aims at making testing activities repeatable and demonstrable by standardization and/or automation.

Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is a name for automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing.

Information technology

The collection of activities involving the design, development, testing, maintenance, and use of computers and software for the processing and distribution of data and the generation of information.

Infrastructure (suitability of)

The suitability of hardware, network, systems software and DBMS for the application concerned and the degree to which the elements of this infrastructure interrelate.

Initial situation

Everything that is needed to prepare the system for receiving the required input. This includes not only the data that are needed for the processing, but also the condition in which the system and its environment must be. For instance, one might think of setting a specific system date, or running specific week and month batches that bring the system to a specific status.


A formal evaluation technique with products being read thoroughly by a group of experts. In addition to determining whether the solution is adequately processed, an inspection focuses primarily on achieving consensus on the quality of a product. The aim of the inspection is to help the author find as many deviations as possible in the available time.


Integrate is one of the five elements of TMap HD. It aims at reducing IT complexity and quality risks by organizing a shared way of working with a shared responsibility for quality.

Intelligent behavior

Intelligent behavior is the ability to comprehend or understand. The Ability to learn is the ability to comprehend, to understand and to profit from experience. This is a new main quality characteristic.

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of devices embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enables these objects to connect and to exchange data.


Internet of Things


See Information technology.

Known errors

Defects that have been found but have not been solved (yet).

Logical test case

Describes, in logical terms, the circumstances in which the system behavior is examined by indicating which test situations are covered by the test case.

Machine intelligence

Machine intelligence (MI) is a unifying term for what others call machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). We found that when we called it AI, too many people were distracted by whether certain companies were "true AI", and when we called it ML, many thought we weren't doing justice to the more "AI-esque"-like aspects, such as the various flavors of deep learning. So, machine intelligence is a term that combines "artificial intelligence", "machine learning" and other related terms.

Machine learning

Machine learning is one of the ways to achieve artificial intelligence. It contains different algorithms – each with its own strengths and weaknesses. These algorithms are often grouped into three categories: supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning.


Maintainability is the degree of effectiveness and efficiency with which a product or system can be modified by the intended maintainers.


The ease with which the information system can be adapted to new demands from the user, to changing external environments, or in order to correct defects.


The effort needed to get and keep the information system in its operational state.

Master test plan

Test plan by which the various test levels are geared to one another.

Model-based development

Model-based development is the process in which a model is at the center of the (software) development process, from establishing requirements through to design and implementation. This allows for a common design environment across multiple project teams and links all design directly to requirements.

Model-based review

Model-based review employs the use of models to reduce test base ambiguity, it may include creating a model it doesn't deliver actual test cases.

Model-based testing

Model-based testing revolves around using a model of the object or process under development to create or refine test cases. This can range from a fully automated set of tests that are designed and tested by a MBT suite, to model-based review (MBR).

Modified condition/decision coverage

Every possible outcome of a condition is the determinant of the outcome of the decision, at least once.


A mood is a temporary state of mind or feeling. This is a new sub quality characteristic.


Morality is about the principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. This is a new main quality characteristic.

Multiple condition coverage

All the possible combinations of outcomes of conditions in a decision (therefore the complete decision table) are tested at least once. This implies "modified condition/decision coverage".

Natural interaction

Natural interaction is important both in verbal and non-verbal communication between humans and machines. This is a new sub quality characteristic.

Object part

A logically coherent part of the test object from the perspective of the characteristic to be tested.


Function mode of an information system in which the information system immediately processes the commands and directly shows the answer (output) on the screen (or otherwise).

Operational intelligence

Operational intelligence is the use of everything from data mining to analytics to gather, correlate and use all of disparate data to reveal important patterns, gain deeper insights, reduce time to detect important events, leverage live feeds and historical data to understand what is happening, identify anomalies and make effective decisions, and quickly deploy a solution and delivery flexibility needed now and in the future.

Orthogonal array

An orthogonal array LN(sk, t) is a 2-dimensional array of N rows and k columns consisting of elements that can assume s values, whereby every combination of t columns contains all the combinations of the s values in equal proportion.

OT system

Operational Technology (OT) is the hardware and software dedicated to detecting or causing changes in physical processes through direct monitoring and/or control of physical devices such as valves, pumps, etc.

Pairwise testing

Tests all the possibilities of any combination of 2 factors.


People is one of the five elements of TMap HD. It aims at having the right people with the right skills, the right knowledge and the appropriate mindset to wisely apply the agreed methods and way of working in a team and organization.


Performance efficiency is the degree of performance relative to the amount of resources used under stated conditions.


The speed with which the information system processes interactive and batch transactions.

Permanent test organization

A line organization that offers test services.


A personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. This is a new main quality characteristic.

Physical test case

The concrete elaboration of a logical test case, with choices having been made for the values of all required the input and settings of the environmental factors.


Portability is the degree of effectiveness and efficiency with which a system, product or component can be transferred from one hardware, software or other operational or usage environment to another.


The diversity of the hardware and software platforms on which the information system can run, and how easy it is to transfer the system from one environment to another.


Testing the delivered product in such a way that it is determined whether or not the product is of sufficient quality to execute a complete test of this product.


Privacy is the state of being free from unwanted or undue intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. This is a new sub quality characteristic.

Product Lifecycle Management

Product lifecycle management is the approach to managing a product from inception to disposal, and includes all aspects of the product's life, albeit human involvement in the form of skillsets, product information, engineering and manufacturing.

Product risk

The chance that the product fails in relation to the expected damage if this occurs: Product risk = Chance of failure × Damage where Chance of failure = Chance of defects × Frequency of use

Product risk analysis

Analyzing the product to be tested with the aim of achieving a joint view, for the test manager and other stakeholders, of the more or less risky characteristics and parts of the product to be tested so that the thoroughness of testing can be related to this view.

Production acceptance test

A test carried out by the future administrator(s) in an optimally simulated production environment, with the aim of demonstrating that the developed system meets the requirements set by system management.

Progression testing

Testing of new or adapted parts of a system (used as the opposite of regression testing).


The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

Quality assurance

All the planned and systematic activities needed to provide adequate confidence that a product or service meets the requirements for quality.

Quality characteristic

A quality characteristic describes a property of an information system.

Quality risk

See Product risk.


Execute a previously failed test case to verify whether a defect has been properly fixed.


The ease and speed with which the information system can be restored after an interruption.


Regression is the phenomenon that the quality of a system deteriorates as a whole as a result of individual amendments.

Regression test

 A regression test is aimed at verifying that all the unchanged parts of a system still function correctly after the implementation of a change.

Reinforcement learning

A variety of machine learning that determines various options to find the option that maximizes some notion of cumulative reward. Reinforcement learning differs from standard supervised learning in that correct input/output pairs are never presented, nor sub-optimal actions explicitly corrected. Instead the focus is on performance.


Reliability is the degree to which a system, product or component performs specified functions under specified conditions for a specified period of time.


The degree to which the information system remains free from interruptions.


The degree to which parts of the information system, or the design, can be reused for the development of different applications.


An evaluation technique where a product (60-80% complete) is submitted to a number of reviewers with the question to assess it from a certain perspective (depending on the review type). A review focuses primarily on finding courses for a solution on the basis of the knowledge and competencies of the reviewers, and on finding and correcting defects. There are various review types, such as: technical review (e.g. selecting solution direction/alternative), management review (e.g. determining project status), peer review (review by colleagues), and expert review (review by experts).

Risk reporting

A description of the extent to which the system meets the specified quality requirements and the risks associated with bringing a particular version into production, including any available alternatives.


A robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment by input of sensors and, based on this input, changes its behavior.
Combined with machine learning and machine intelligence the robot's reactions over time become more adequate.
The use of Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data Analytics and Cloud technology make a robot versatile.
Robots come in many different shapes and forms. It's not just the metallic man. Robots may equally be a smart algorithm on social media, an autonomous vacuum cleaner or a self-driving car.

Robotic process automation

The use of data-entry tooling that automatically inputs data in an administrative IT system. The data can be generated by an AI system.


Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.


The degree to which the information system proceeds as usual even after an interruption.


Describes one or more tasks and the knowledge and skills required to carry them out.


Satisfaction is the degree to which user needs are satisfied when a product or system is used in a specified context of use.


Security is the degree to which a product or system protects information and data so that persons or other products or systems have the degree of data access appropriate to their types and levels of authorization.


The certainty that data can be viewed and changed only by those who are authorized to do so.


Simplify is one of the five elements of TMap HD. It aims at ending the upward spiral of growing complexity of IT systems that requires increasing testing efforts, by standardizing and decoupling.

Smoke test

Short test that covers the basic functionality of the system under test, used as a first sanity check or to establish if the quality is good enough to start the actual testing. Often a smoke test is time-boxed.
Synonyms: pre-test or intake test.

Starting point

Initial situations often contain the same data for several test cases. Such data are therefore included in a so-called starting point for the entire test and not separated for each test case. It is called a central starting point if this is intended for more tests or testers.

Static testing

Testing by examining products (such as manuals or source code) without any programs being executed.


A simulation program.


The degree to which manual procedures match the automated information system and the fitness for use of these manual procedures for the organization.

Supervised learning

Supervised learning is the machine-learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs. It infers a function from labeled training data consisting of a set of training examples.

System integration test

A test carried out by the future user(s) in an optimally simulated production environment, with the aim of demonstrating that (sub)system interface agreements have been met, correctly interpreted and correctly implemented.

System management

System management is responsible for technical operation of the software in its intended infrastructure in production.

System test

A test carried out by the supplier in a (manageable) laboratory environment, with the aim of demonstrating that the developed system, or parts of it, meet with the functional and non-functional specifications and the technical design.

Test basis

The test basis is the information that defines the required system behavior.

Test case

Used to examine whether the system displays the desired behavior under specific circumstances.

Test data

Data that exists (for example, in a database) before a test is executed, and that affects or is affected by the component or system under test.

Test depth level

Test depth level N = the certainty that all the combinations of N consecutive paths are covered.

Test design technique

A standardized method of deriving test cases from a particular test basis that will achieve a certain coverage.

Test engineer

The person(s) in a cross-functional team that specifies and/or executes tests and evaluates the test results. Test engineer is a role, not necessarily a function.

Test environment

A composition of parts, such as hardware and software, connections, environment data, maintenance tools and management processes in which a test is carried out.

Test goal

A test goal is a success criterion for the test assignment formulated in the language of the client or stakeholder.

Test harness

A collection of software and test data configured for a development environment with the purpose of dynamically testing one unit or a series of units, whereby the behavior and output are checked.

Test infrastructure

Consists of the facilities and resources necessary to facilitate the satisfactory execution of the test. A distinction is made between test environments, test tools and workplaces.

Test intensity

Indicates whether a combination of characteristic and object part must be tested lightly, moderately or intensively.

Test intensity table

A test intensity table guides a team in deciding how to achieve the desired test intensity by defining what test approaches and techniques should be used for which level of quality risk. The test intensity table uses the test approaches and coverage groups as defined on

Test level

A test level is a group of test activities that are managed and executed collectively.

Test line

The operational organization to provide test services to one or more clients. A test line has a fixed team of testers, infrastructure, test tools and standardized work procedures.

Test object

The test object is the information system (or part thereof) to be tested.

Test organization

The whole of the test functions, facilities, procedures and activities including their relationships.

Test pattern

A general solution for a specific recurring test problem.

Test plan

In a test plan the general structure and the strategic choices with respect to the test to be executed are formulated. The test plan forms the scope of reference during the execution of the test and also serves as an instrument to communicate with the client of the test. The test plan is a description of the test project, including a description of the activities and the planning: it is not a description of the tests themselves.

Test point

Unit of measurement for the size of the high-level test to be executed.

Test point analysis (TPA)

A method with the possibility to perform a technology-independent measurement of the test depth level of an information system, on the basis of a function point analysis, and to use this measurement as a basis for a productivity measurement, an estimate of the required resources, and project management.

Test policy

Describes how an organization deals with the people, resources and methods involved with the test process in the various situations.

Test process

The collection of tools, techniques and working methods used to perform a test.

Test script

Combines multiple physical test cases to be able to execute them in an efficient and simple manner.

Test situation

An isolated condition under which the test object displays a specific behavior that needs to be tested.

Test strategy

The description of the distribution of the test effort and test intensity over the test units of the test object aimed at implementing a risk-based approach.

Test team

A group of people who, led by a test manager, undertake test activities.

Test technique

A set of actions aimed at creating a test deliverable by a universal method.

Test tool

An automated instrument that supports one or more test activities, such as planning, control, specification and execution.

Test tool policy

Describes how an organization handles the acquisition, implementation and use of test tools in the various situations.

Test type

A group of test activities with the intention of checking the information system in respect of a number of correlated (part aspects of) quality characteristics.

Test unit

A collection of processes, transactions and/or functions that are tested collectively.

Test variety

The term "test variety" aims at making all stakeholders aware that there will always be different needs for testing, and therefore different varieties of testing will have to be organized.
Whether these are organized separately or combined depends on the situation. Test varieties are defined based on the relevant quality characteristics and other relevant perspectives.


The ease and speed with which characteristics of the system can be tested (following each adjustment).

Testability review

The detailed check of the test basis on testability.


Testing is a process that provides insight into, and advice on, quality and the related risks.

Testing (ISO)

Technical operation that consists of the determination of one or more characteristics of a given product, process or service according to a specified procedure [ISO/IEC Guide 2, 1991].


All the test documentation produced in the course of the test process that can be used for maintenance purposes and that should therefore be transferable and maintainable.

Transparency of choices

Transparency of choices indicates if a human involved can understand how a machine comes to its decisions? This is a new sub quality characteristic.

Unit integration test

A test carried out by the developer in the development environment, with the aim of demonstrating that a logical group of units meets the requirements defined in the technical specifications.

Unit test

A test carried out in the development environment by the developer, with the aim of demonstrating that a unit meets the requirements defined in the technical specifications.

Unsupervised learning

Unsupervised machine learning is the machine-learning task of inferring a function to describe hidden structure from "unlabeled" data (a classification or categorization is not included in the observations).


Usability is the degree to which a product or system can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.

User function

A property recognized by the user which the delivered product should meet. Generally speaking the user functions may best be described as objects and processes.


How easy it is for end users to use the system. This general definition is often divided into how easy it is for end users to learn to work with the information system, and how easy it is to work with for trained users.

Users acceptance test

A test carried out by the future user(s) in an optimally simulated production environment, with the aim of demonstrating that the developed system meets the requirements of the users.

Virtual engineering

Virtual engineering means that design and validation activities occur collaboratively in order to prove early product designs, support decision-making and enable continuous product optimization within interdisciplinary and cross-enterprise partnerships.


An evaluation technique by which the author explains the contents of a product during a meeting. Several different objectives are possible: bringing all participants to the same starting point, transfer of information, asking the participants for additional information or letting the participants choose from the alternatives proposed by the author.

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